What is Baking, a History of Baking

What is Baking, a history of baking

Baking is the art of cooking food with dry heat, primarily in some kind of oven. It is the oldest method of cooking. Bakery products, including

  • Bread
  • Rolls
  • Cookies
  • Pies
  • Pastries
  • Muffins,

are usually made from flour or a meal that is derived from some form of grain. Bread, already a daily staple in prehistoric times, provides many nutrients in the human diet.

History of baking

Early processing of cereal grains probably involved drying or roasting the collected cereal seeds. The taste, texture, and digestibility were improved by cooking whole or broken grains with water and making dal or porridge. It was a short step of baking the sticky grain layer on a hot stone, creating the ancient flatbread. More sophisticated versions of flatbread include the Mexican tortilla, which is made from corn, and the Indian chapati, which is usually made from wheat. Tortilla is a key ingredient of Tacos

Improvements in Baking techniques

Baking techniques improved with the development of closed baking dishes and then ovens, making denser baked cakes or bread possible. The phenomenon of leavening, resulting in the lightening of bread structure and the development of savory flavors, was probably first observed when dough or lard, which had been kept for several hours before baking, showed spoilage caused by yeast. Used to do Some of the effects of microbiologically induced changes were considered desirable, and the gradual gaining of control over the process led to the traditional methods of making yeast bread.

Early baked products were made from mixed grains with a predominance of barley, but wheat flour, due to its superior response to fermentation, eventually became the preferred grain among various cultural groups for making leavened bread. They were quite advanced in culinary techniques.

Brewing and baking were closely related in early civilizations. Fermentation of a coarse dal resulted in flour suitable for baking. A thin mash produces a type of beer. Both techniques required knowledge of the “secret” of fermentation and grain supply. Growing knowledge and experience taught artisans in the baking and brewing trades which wheat was best for baking and which wheat was best for baking.


By 2600 BC, the Egyptians, who are credited with the first intentional use of yeast, were making bread in a manner similar in principle to today’s methods. They maintained a stock of sourdough, a crude culture of the desired fermenting organisms, and used portions of this material to inoculate fresh dough. With dough made by mixing flour, water, salt, and yeast, the Egyptian baking industry eventually produced more than 50 types of bread, varying in shape and flavoring with such ingredients as poppy seeds, sesame seeds, and camphor. Is used. Patterns found in tombs are flatter and coarser than modern bread.

The Egyptians developed the first oven. The earliest known examples are blue pots made of baked Nile clay, tapered at the top to form a cone and divided inside by a horizontal shelf-like partition. The lower part is the firebox. The upper part is the baking chamber. The pieces of dough were placed in the baking chamber through the opening at the top.


For the first two or three centuries after the founding of Rome, baking remained a domestic skill with few changes in equipment or processing methods. According to Pliny the Elder, there were no bakers in Rome until the middle of the second century BC. As prosperous families grew, women who wanted to avoid repetitive and tedious bread-making began to patronize professional bakers, usually freed slaves. The loaves were hand-rolled into loaves, usually weighing one pound, and baked in a wooden beehive-shaped oven. Panis artopticius was a type cooked on a spit, panis testuatis in a clay pot.

Although Roman professional bakers introduced technological improvements, many were of minor importance, and some were essentially reintroductions of earlier developments. The first mechanical dough mixer, attributed to Marcus Virgilius (sometimes spelled Virgilius), a freed slave of Greek origin Euryssus, consisted of a large stone basin with wooden paddles, and horse or donkey wheels. As I walked, I kneaded the dough mixture. Flour, yeast, and water.

The guilds formed by the miller-bakers of Rome became institutionalized. During the second century AD, under the Flavians, they were organized into a “college” with working rules prescribed by government officials. Trade eventually became compulsory and hereditary, and the baker became a kind of civil servant with limited freedom of action.

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Middle Ages

During the early Middle Ages, the advances in baking technology of previous centuries disappeared, and bakers reverted to the mechanical devices and more backward methods used by the ancient Egyptians. But in the later Middle Ages, the institution of guilds was revived and expanded. Several years of apprenticeship were necessary before an applicant could be admitted to the guild. Often, an intermediate status as a journeyman intervenes between apprenticeship and full membership (master). The rise of bakers’ guilds reflects significant advances in technique.

A 13th-century French writer named 20 varieties of bread that differ in appearance, flavor, preparation method, and quality of food used. Guild regulations strictly control size and quality. But outside the cities, bread was usually baked in homes. In medieval England, rye was the main ingredient of bread eaten by the poor. It was often mixed with foods made from other grains or legumes. By 1865 the price of white bread in England had not fallen below that of brown bread.


At this time, baking technology began to improve rapidly, usually due to the high level of technology. Ingredients of greater purity and better functional properties were developed with equipment that reduced the need for individual skill and eliminated manual manipulation of bread dough. Automation of mixing, transfer, forming, fermentation, and baking processes began to replace batch processing with continuous operations. Enriching bread and other bakery foods with vitamins and minerals was a major achievement of the mid-20th-century baking industry.

Ingredients of baking

Flour, water, and leavening ingredients are primarily responsible for the characteristics, texture, and flavor of most bakery products. Eggs, milk, salt, shortening, and sugar are effective in changing these properties, and various minor ingredients can also be used.

About Machwara

Hi, I am a fisherman. I love Fishing and cooking. You can read an informative article on my blog about food, Vegetables, Cooking, Health and fishing.

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